Recently, Google officially launched Android 9 Pie, which includes a slew of new features around digital well-being, security, and privacy. If you’ve poked around the network settings on your phone while on the beta or after updating, you may have noticed a new Private DNS Mode now supported by Android.
This new feature simplifies the process of configuring a custom secure DNS resolver on Android, meaning parties between your device and the websites you visit won’t be able to snoop on your DNS queries because they’ll be encrypted. The protocol behind this, TLS, is also responsible for the green lock icon you see in your address bar when visiting websites over HTTPS. The same technology is useful for encrypting DNS queries, ensuring they cannot be tampered with and are unintelligible to ISPs, mobile carriers, and any others in the network path between you and your DNS resolver. These new security protocols are called DNS over HTTPS, and DNS over TLS.
Android Pie only supports DNS over TLS. To enable this on your device:
- Go to Settings → Network & internet → Advanced → Private DNS.
- Select the Private DNS provider hostname option.
1dot1dot1dot1.cloudflare-dns.comand hit Save.
- Visit 18.104.22.168/help (or 22.214.171.124/help) to verify that “Using DNS over TLS (DoT)” shows as “Yes”.
And you’re done!
Why Use Private DNS?
TLS is the protocol that encrypts your traffic over an untrusted communication channel, like when browsing your email on a cafe’s wireless network. Even with TLS, there is still no way of knowing if your connection to the DNS server has been hijacked or is being snooped on by a third party. This is significant because a bad actor could configure an open WiFi hotspot in a public place that responds to DNS queries with falsified records in order to hijack connections to common email providers and online banks. DNSSEC solves the problem of guaranteeing authenticity by signing responses, making tampering detectable, but leaves the body of the message readable by anyone else on the wire.
DNS over HTTPS / TLS solves this. These new protocols ensure that communication between your device and the resolver is encrypted, just like we’ve come to expect of HTTPS traffic.
However, there is one final insecure step in this chain of events: the revealing of the SNI (server name indication) during the initial TLS negotiation between your device and a specific hostname on a server. The requested hostname is not encrypted, so third parties still have the ability to see the websites you visit. It makes sense that the final step in completely securing your browsing activity involves encrypting SNI, which is an in-progress standard that Cloudflare has joined other organizations to define and promote.
DNS in an IPv6 World
You may have noticed that the private DNS field does not accept an IP address like 126.96.36.199 and instead wants a hostname like 1dot1dot1dot1.cloudflare-dns.com. This doesn’t exactly roll off the tongue, so we’re working on deploying an easier to remember address for the resolver, and will continue to support 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, and 1dot1dot1dot1.cloudflare-dns.com.
Google requires a hostname for this field because of how mobile carriers are adapting to a dual-stack world in which IPv4 and IPv6 coexist. Companies are adopting IPv6 much more rapidly than generally expected, and all major mobile carriers in the US support it, including T-Mobile who has gone completely IPv6. In a world where the approximately 26 billion internet-connected devices vastly outnumber the 4.3 billion IPv4 addresses, this is good news. And in a forward-thinking move, Apple requires that all new iOS apps must support single-stack IPv6 networks.
However, we still live in a world with IPv4 addresses, so phone manufacturers and carriers have to architect their systems with backwards compatibility in mind. Currently, iOS and Android request both A and AAAA DNS records, which contain the IP address(es) corresponding to a domain in version 4 and version 6 format, respectively. Try it out yourself:
$ dig A +short 1dot1dot1dot1.cloudflare-dns.com 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 $ dig AAAA +short 1dot1dot1dot1.cloudflare-dns.com 2606:4700:4700::1001 2606:4700:4700::1111
To talk to a device with only an IPv4 address over an IPv6 only network, the DNS resolver has to translate IPv4 addresses into the IPv6 address using DNS64. The requests to those translated IP addresses then go through the NAT64 translation service provided by the network operator. This is all completely transparent to the device and web server.
Learn more about this process from APNIC.