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Undoubtedly, one of the big themes in IT for the next decade will be the migration to post-quantum cryptography. From tech giants to small businesses: we will all have to make sure our hardware and software is updated so that our data is protected against the arrival of quantum computers. It seems far away, but it’s not a problem for later: any encrypted data captured today (not protected by post-quantum cryptography) can be broken by a sufficiently powerful quantum computer in the future.
Luckily we’re almost there: after a tremendous worldwide effort by the cryptographic community, we know what will be the gold standard of post-quantum cryptography for the next decades. Release date: somewhere in 2024. Hopefully, for most, the transition will be a simple software update then, but it will not be that simple for everyone: not all software is maintained, and it could well be that hardware needs an upgrade as well. Taking a step back, many companies don’t even have a full list of all software running on their network.
For Cloudflare Tunnel customers, this migration will be much simpler: introducing Post-Quantum Cloudflare Tunnel. In this blog post, first we give an overview of how Cloudflare Tunnel works and explain how it can help you with your post-quantum migration. Then we’ll explain how to get started and finish with the nitty-gritty technical details.
With Cloudflare Tunnel you can securely expose a server sitting within an internal network to the Internet by running the
cloudflared service next to it. For instance, after having installed
cloudflared on your internal network, you can expose your on-prem webapp on the Internet under, say example.com, so that remote workers can access it from anywhere,
How does it work?
cloudflared creates long-running connections to two nearby Cloudflare data centers, for instance San Francisco (connection 3) and one other. When your employee visits your domain, they connect (1) to a Cloudflare server close to them, say in Frankfurt. That server knows that this is a Cloudflare Tunnel and that your
cloudflared has a connection to a server in San Francisco, and thus it relays (2) the request to it. In turn, via the reverse connection, the request ends up at
cloudflared, which passes it (4) to the webapp via your internal network.
In essence, Cloudflare Tunnel is a simple but convenient tool, but the magic is in what you can do on top with it: you get Cloudflare’s DDoS protection for free; fine-grained access control with Cloudflare Access (even if the application didn’t support it) and request logs just to name a few. And let’s not forget the matter at hand:
Our goal is to make it easy for everyone to have a fully post-quantum secure connection from users to origin. For this, Post-Quantum Cloudflare Tunnel is a powerful tool, because with it, your users can benefit from a post-quantum secure connection without upgrading your application (connection 4 in the diagram).
Today, we make two important steps towards this goal:
cloudflared 2022.9.1 adds the
--post-quantum flag, that when given, makes the connection from
cloudflared to our network (connection 3) post-quantum secure.
Also today, we have announced support for post-quantum browser connections (connection 1).
We aren’t there yet: browsers (and other HTTP clients) do not support the post-quantum security offered by our network, yet, and we still have to make the connections between our data centers (connection 2) post-quantum secure.
An attacker only needs to have access to one vulnerable connection, but attackers don’t have access everywhere: with every connection we make post-quantum secure, we remove one opportunity for compromise.
We are eager to make post-quantum tunnels the default, but for now it is a beta feature. The reason is that the cryptography used and its integration into the network protocol are not yet final. Making post-quantum the default now, would require users to update
cloudflared more often than we can reasonably expect them to.
Are frequent updates to
cloudflared not a problem for you? Then please do give post-quantum Cloudflare Tunnel a try. Make sure you’re on at least 2022.9.1 and simply run
cloudflared with the
$ cloudflared tunnel run --post-quantum tunnel-name 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Starting tunnel tunnelID=[...] 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Version 2022.9.1 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF GOOS: darwin, GOVersion: go1.19.1, GoArch: amd64 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Settings: map[post-quantum:true pq:true] 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Generated Connector ID: [...] 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF cloudflared will not automatically update if installed by a package manager. 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Initial protocol quic 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Using experimental hybrid post-quantum key agreement X25519Kyber768Draft00 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Starting metrics server on 127.0.0.1:53533/metrics 2022-09-23T11:44:42Z INF Connection [...] registered connIndex=0 ip=[...] location=AMS 2022-09-23T11:44:43Z INF Connection [...] registered connIndex=1 ip=[...] location=AMS 2022-09-23T11:44:44Z INF Connection [...] registered connIndex=2 ip=[...] location=AMS 2022-09-23T11:44:45Z INF Connection [...] registered connIndex=3 ip=[...] location=AMS
If you run
cloudflared as a service, you can turn on post-quantum by adding
post-quantum: true to the tunnel configuration file. Conveniently, the
cloudflared service will automatically update itself if not installed by a package manager.
If, for some reason, creating a post-quantum tunnel fails, you’ll see an error message like
2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Starting tunnel tunnelID=[...] 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Version 2022.9.1 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF GOOS: darwin, GOVersion: go1.19.1, GoArch: amd64 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Settings: map[post-quantum:true pq:true] 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Generated Connector ID: [...] 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF cloudflared will not automatically update if installed by a package manager. 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Initial protocol quic 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Using experimental hybrid post-quantum key agreement X25519Kyber512Draft00 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF Starting metrics server on 127.0.0.1:55889/metrics 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z INF =================================================================================== You are hitting an error while using the experimental post-quantum tunnels feature. Please check: https://pqtunnels.cloudflareresearch.com for known problems. =================================================================================== 2022-09-22T17:30:39Z ERR Failed to create new quic connection error="failed to dial to edge with quic: CRYPTO_ERROR (0x128): tls: handshake failure" connIndex=0 ip=[...]
When the post-quantum flag is given,
cloudflared will not fall back to a non post-quantum connection.
What to look for
The setup phase is the crucial part: once established, the tunnel is the same as a normal tunnel. That means that performance and reliability should be identical once the tunnel is established.
The post-quantum cryptography we use is very fast, but requires roughly a kilobyte of extra data to be exchanged during the handshake. The difference will be hard to notice in practice.
Our biggest concern is that some network equipment/middleboxes might be confused by the bigger handshake. If the post-quantum Cloudflare Tunnel isn’t working for you, we’d love to hear about it. Contact us at [email protected] and tell us which middleboxes or ISP you’re using.
Under the hood
--post-quantum flag is given,
cloudflared restricts itself to the QUIC transport for the tunnel connection to our network and will only allow the post-quantum hybrid key exchanges
X25519Kyber768Draft00 with TLS identifiers
0xfe31 respectively. These are hybrid key exchanges between the classical X25519 and the post-quantum secure Kyber. Thus, on the off-chance that Kyber turns out to be insecure, we can still rely on the non-post quantum security of X25519. These are the same key exchanges supported on our network.
cloudflared randomly picks one of these two key exchanges. The reason is that the latter usually requires two initial packets for the TLS ClientHello whereas the former only requires one. That allows us to test whether a fragmented ClientHello causes trouble.
cloudflared fails to set up the post-quantum connection, it will report the attempted key exchange,
cloudflared version and error to pqtunnels.cloudflareresearch.com so that we have visibility into network issues. Have a look at that page for updates on our post-quantum tunnel deployment.
The control connection and authentication of the tunnel between
cloudflared and our network are not post-quantum secure yet. This is less urgent than the store-now-decrypt-later issue of the data on the tunnel itself.
We have open-sourced support for these post-quantum QUIC key exchanges in Go.
In the coming decade the industry will roll out post-quantum data protection. Some cases will be as simple as a software update and others will be much more difficult. Post-Quantum Cloudflare Tunnel will secure the connection between Cloudflare’s network and your origin in a simple and user-friendly way — an important step towards the Post-Quantum Internet, so that everyone may continue to enjoy a private and secure Internet.