“Which came first, the chicken or the egg?” It’s one of life's great questions. There are hundreds of articles published which conclude with eggs predating chickens by millions of years. Unfortunately, Cloudflare users don't have New Scientist on hand to answer similar questions.
Which runs first, Firewall Rules or Workers? Page Rules or Transform Rules? Whilst not as philosophically challenging, the answers to these questions are key to setting up your Cloudflare zone correctly. Answering them has become increasingly difficult as more and more functionality is added, thanks to our incredible rate of shipping products. What was once a relatively easy to understand traffic flow exploded in complexity with the introduction of products such as Workers, Load Balancing Rules and Transform Rules. And this big bang of product announcements is only accelerating each year.
To begin addressing this problem, we developed Traffic Sequence. Traffic Sequence is a simple dashboard illustration which shows a default, high-level overview of how Cloudflare products interact. Think of this as your atlas, rather than the “Knowledge” all drivers of London's black cabs have to learn. This helps you understand that London is in the south east of the UK, but not that it's quicker to walk than use the London Underground between Leicester Square and Covent Garden.
Traffic Sequence is now enabled for all zones by default, appearing on ten product pages within the dashboard. Traffic Sequence highlights in blue the product area you are currently configuring, showing where within the HTTP request lifecycle the specific product sits. This provides context and allows users to understand which products will see the impact of changes here, and which products will not.
Traffic Sequence is designed to make Cloudflare’s edge clearer to our customers, allowing users to understand how products fit together and understand how HTTP requests flow between each.
Dear Cloudflare, which runs first?
Understanding how traffic is routed through Cloudflare has been one of the most common questions from both Cloudflare staff and customers alike.
Love Cloudflare, but still can’t my head around workers. do they come before the cache? After? Page Rules? I’ve asked in the forums and chat , but a single reference doc would be so goood! (specific page rules & cache settings ex: interaction with Cache Everything)— “Metaverse” Grynn (@Grynn) December 1, 2020
Is there any blog/documentation which could tell us how a request flows across different Cloudflare Products?— Ashutosh Kumar (@ashutoshpw) June 10, 2021
e.g, I know page rules are performed first and then it goes to workers.
But a complete flow is appreciated.
But why does it matter? Let's go through a simple example.
Released in April 2021, “Transform Rules” lets users rewrite URLs of HTTP requests as they proxy through their zone — for example, rewriting
/super/secret/login-page.php, all invisible to the end user.
In this scenario, the administrator also has a Firewall Rule blocking requests to the URI Path
/login.php when the visitor is coming from a country other than the United States. What they would see, however, is that visitors from these other countries are still reaching the
/login.php page on their servers. Why is this?
This is because URL rewrites happen
before Firewall Rules, meaning the Firewall Rules product won’t see a URI Path of
/login.php. Instead it will see HTTP requests with the rewritten URI path of
/super/secret/login-page.php. Thus, when Firewall Rules evaluates the customers rule it checks:
- Is this from a country that is not the USA? Yes
- AND - Is this request going to a URI Path of /login.php? No.
As both criteria are not evaluated as ‘true’, the rule does not match and the traffic is allowed on its journey.
This is why it is so important to know how Cloudflare's products interoperate to get the most out of your plan, and achieve your goals without having to dig through mountains of documentation.
In an alternate timeline, Traffic Sequence is used to highlight that Firewall Rules run after URL rewriting occurs, and therefore see’s the rewritten value in the URI Path. With this information the customer can then configure a Firewall Rule to look for the rewritten value in URI Path and accomplish their desired setup.
From napkin to working prototype
Traffic Sequence was originally borne out of a “back of the napkin” idea during the creation of Transform Rules and URL Normalization, in an attempt to show where these transformations were happening:
The idea might have started from a need of our own, but it ended up addressing well known customer and internal problems: whenever we build a new product everyone wants to understand how it fits into the big picture. So we pushed the idea further, proposing it to other teams and soliciting feedback.
This project was a great example of how bringing the right level of fidelity of thinking to the table can be evolved into an opportunity to ship to learn. Something that was initially meant as an explainer diagram for one rule type has become an almost bespoke experience of the dashboard, as it is unique to each customer's Cloudflare environment, displaying only the products available for use in that zone. We offer many options and routes to products, but we didn’t have a straightforward flow of information that customers can rely on, focusing only on what they have set up and have access to.
As part of the design process, we try to focus on asking lots of questions rather than just finding an answer. Some of the considerations we had were:
- What if we show customers a product they aren’t using?
- What if we show customers a product they aren’t entitled to on their plan level?
- Why aren’t we showing “this product”?
- Do we have this visualisation on by default?
After gaining internal momentum to flesh out this project, we decided to focus on three areas:
- Simplifying a complex ecosystem – what is a useful simplification?
- Value that this will add beyond this first application
- Opportunity to test out different navigation and mental models.
After all, this is not just a map of our system, but a new way of navigating it entirely.
Positive early internal feedback not only aligned with our goals, but allowed us to iterate on points that needed improvement. We knew that this could be a game-changer for promoting clarity, improving discoverability and saving time with navigation: going for one click instead of three for most items.
A couple of iterations later, we were ready to put this in the hands of our users for early testing:
Thanks to our incredible community we had a high level of interest in the first week, providing insight into how this feature would be used in the real world, and answering the ultimate question of this experiment: “Does this solve the problem of understanding how Cloudflare handles HTTP requests?” via our Traffic Sequence survey form:
- “I didn't know where my requests were going... until now.”
- “It's always been confusing which products/features affect which other products/features.”
- “It's really handy to be able to explain the ordering that these are happening in, and I like the deeplink into the relevant area.”
These were all a great reminder that what triggered this work was ingrained in real customer needs.
Other feedback was rapidly incorporated into the prototype; specifically splitting Transform Rules into two separate sections to highlight that URL rewrites and header modifications occur at different parts of the request flow. We also added features which our users deemed important for clarity, such as IP Access Rules.
Traffic Sequence for all
Thanks to the great feedback and participation of all testers, both internal and external, we are now in a position where we are comfortable to take the covers off and make Traffic Sequence available to all users.
The visualisation can be hidden easily by clicking on the “hide” button, and the display automatically hides to preserve critical whitespace when needed:
When new products are added, or updates to products occur which modify the traffic order, this diagram will be updated accordingly.
Evolving Traffic Sequence
We know this is a high level, generic overview of how Cloudflare products interact. There is a level of nuance underneath, and a number of products and features not shown in the Traffic Sequence illustration which play an important part in keeping users safe and secure.
In the future we have aspirations to build “the other side of the coin”. Traffic Sequence provides a simple to understand view of how the products work by default at a high level. We also want to create a detailed, almost traceroute-like feature which allows users to see exactly what happens to their traffic — which products it goes via and what happens within those products, and potentially a lot more. Stay tuned!
Try it now
This feature is now enabled by default on all customer zones, and is visible within the dashboard locations outlined above.
Please do try it out and let us know what you think via the Cloudflare Community